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NURS FPX 6414 Assessment 3 Tool Kit for Bioinformatics

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Capella University

NURS-FPX 6414 Advancing Health Care Through Data Mining

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Tool Kit for Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is described as the combination of computational analysis and biological data. This interdisciplinary field connects pioneering technology and data science to translate various diseases’ genetic and molecular foundations (Majhi et al., 2019). This assessment explicitly covers the application of bioinformatics for preventive medicine in tertiary care settings. Preventive medicine is a field of research in which the genes associated with particular diseases are identified to develop new medicines and therapies targeting the genes, eventually combatting the diseases. 

Evidence-Based Policy, Guidelines, and Practical Recommendations 

Preventive medicine plays an imperative role in promoting public health. Preventive medicine involves recognizing, mitigating, and precluding diseases before they manifest. Integration of technology and big data analysis has proven benefits to ward off diseases before they take charge in the healthcare sector (Razzak et al., 2020). However, a policy framework is essential to outline the key actions and rationale behind them for effective implementation.

Tertiary care settings must integrate genomic data to identify diseases with genetic predispositions. This will enable the organization for early identification of the disease and develop personalized interventions. The rationale for integrating genomics grounds from the COVID period, where identifying the disease’s origin, transmission, and evolution helped combat the disease. Moreover, genomics is crucial in preventing several communicable and non-communicable diseases (Khoury et al., 2021). 

Guidelines for Implementation

Initially, the organization must assemble a team of geneticists, data analytics, healthcare providers, and IT experts to undertake the implementation process. Secondly, tertiary care settings must evaluate the current technological infrastructure and perform a needs assessment to identify areas of enhancement for incorporating genomics. Another critical action that tertiary care settings must follow is prioritizing data security and patient privacy. This complies with data protection policies like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

It is crucial to maintain public trust in the healthcare system and encourage active participation (Theodos & Sittig, 2020). Then, tertiary care settings must develop training programs for healthcare professionals to build their competencies in bioinformatics and address their challenges for effective results. Lastly, the organization must keep comprehensive records of policy implementation, training, and education and the results achieved. This report will help internal and external stakeholders analyze the project’s success and make necessary adjustments. 

Practical Recommendations

Practical recommendations for the project implementation include educating stakeholders about the new practices. The educational approach must be tailored to individual stakeholder’s needs (Turner et al., 2021), such as healthcare professionals will need in-depth training related to data analytics tools. Similarly, IT specialists may need specific training on healthcare issues and domains. Other than this, there must be a clear and accessible communication pathway, such as workshops, seminars, and online resources. Moreover, project leaders and the team must have clear goals and objectives to pursue and bring successful results. Another recommendation is for monitoring data, where specific standardized key performance indicators (KPIs) must be set, such as disease prevalence, early identification, and patient engagement. These KPIs and pre-implementation metrics will help perform a comparative analysis to evaluate successful outcomes and modify the plan.

Example of Implementation

Breast cancer is one of the most widespread cancers around the world, which requires early detection to prevent and improve patient outcomes. Bioinformatics for genetic screening has helped prevent the disease. Jürgens et al. (2022) performed a pilot study in an Estonian biobank and evaluated several genetic variants for preventing breast cancer in clinical settings. Since breast cancer guidelines are more focused on identifying personal and family history as essential factors, this study presents the hypothesis of prioritizing genetic factors.

According to the authors, early recognition of genetic predisposition will help in early prevention of the disease. The study showed the results that among 200,000 participants, 180 females were re-contacted due to the identification of breast cancer high-risk genes. These include BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, STK11, and CDH1. Meanwhile, some moderate-risk genes were also identified, which are ATM, PALB2, CHEK2, NBN, and NF1. This study concluded the effectiveness of the genotype-first approach in clinical settings as this approach assists in developing personalized breast cancer screening and prevention programs to maximize the prevention and early detection of the disease. 

NURS FPX 6414 Assessment 3 Tool Kit for Bioinformatics

Table 1

Details of risk genes variants

(Jürgens et al., 2022)

Figure 1

Cumulative prevalence of breast cancer 

(Jürgens et al., 2022)

Legal and Ethical Implications

The implementation of bioinformatics in healthcare settings has several legal and ethical implications. Data privacy, informed consent, and compliance with HIPAA law are paramount. Since the bioinformatics system caters to extensive patient data and genomic information, it is essential to use data protection and privacy measures to avoid breaches and misuse (Mohammed Yakubu & Chen, 2020). Secondly, informed consent is another important legal implication of bioinformatics, as it is crucial to avoid legal repercussions and protect patients’ rights to their health information and treatment. 

On the other hand, from an ethical standpoint, implementing bioinformatics raises issues related to autonomy and justice. Autonomy is the patient’s right to choose. In the case of genomic studies, patients must have the right to choose genetic testing based on informed consent, including the study’s potential risks and benefits. Moreover, the information gathered from the genetic studies must benefit the communities most. Collective benefits should be encouraged, which, if not, may raise concerns about the ethical principle of justice and fairness 

Responsible and Accountable Use of Data

The responsible and accountable use of data in bioinformatics necessitates clear identification of areas of responsibility, such as data collection, data storage, and data transmission, using robust security and privacy measures. Interpreting data and making decisions according to them is the primary responsibility of healthcare professionals. They must ensure the ethical use of information. Simultaneously, the care setting is liable for policy development and compliance with data protection regulations. Researchers play a central role in enhancing ethical data usage by developing evidence-based algorithms. Finally, supervising data across the interdisciplinary team requires extra accountability to uphold patients’ trust and ensure bioinformatics’s moral, protected, and practical integration for preventive medicine in tertiary care settings. 

References

Johnson, S. B., Slade, I., Giubilini, A., & Graham, M. (2020). Rethinking the ethical principles of genomic medicine services. European Journal of Human Genetics28(2), 147–154. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0507-1 

Jürgens, H., Roht, L., Leitsalu, L., Nõukas, M., Palover, M., Nikopensius, T., Reigo, A., Kals, M., Kallak, K., Kütner, R., Budrikas, K., Kuusk, S., Valvere, V., Laidre, P., Toome, K., Rekker, K., Tooming, M., Ülle Murumets, Kahre, T., … Tõnisson, N. (2022). Precise, genotype-first breast cancer prevention: Experience with transferring monogenic findings from a population biobank to the clinical setting. Frontiers in Genetics13https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2022.881100 

Khoury, M. J., & Holt, K. E. (2021). The impact of genomics on precision public health: Beyond the pandemic. Genome Medicine13(1), 67. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00886-y 

NURS FPX 6414 Assessment 3 Tool Kit for Bioinformatics

Majhi, V., Paul, S., & Jain, R. (2019). Bioinformatics for healthcare applications. 2019 Amity International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AICAI), 204–207. https://doi.org/10.1109/AICAI.2019.8701277 

Mohammed Yakubu, A., & Chen, Y.-P. P. (2020). Ensuring privacy and security of genomic data and functionalities. Briefings in Bioinformatics21(2), 511–526. https://doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbz013 

Razzak, M. I., Imran, M., & Xu, G. (2020). Big data analytics for preventive medicine. Neural Computing and Applications32(9), 4417–4451. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00521-019-04095-y 

Theodos, K., & Sittig, S. (2020). Health information privacy laws in the digital age: HIPAA doesn’t apply. Perspectives in Health Information Management, 18(Winter), 1l. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883355/ 

Turner, M. W., Bogdewic, S., Agha, E., Blanchard, C., Sturke, R., Pettifor, A., Salisbury, K., Marques, A. H., Excellent, M. L., Rajagopal, N., & Ramaswamy, R. (2021). Learning needs assessment for multi-stakeholder implementation science training in LMIC settings: Findings and recommendations. Implementation Science Communications2(1), 134. https://doi.org/10.1186/s43058-021-00238-2 

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