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NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Student Name

Capella University

NHS-FPX 4000 Developing a Health Care Perspective

Prof. Name:

Date

Healthcare Issue and its Relevance

A medication error is a preventable adverse event resulting from inappropriate medication use, causing harm to the consumer. Healthcare organizations are recently facing a skyrocketing prevalence of medication errors. According to the report by the World Health Organization (WHO), around 1.3 million people are harmed by medication errors, and almost one medication-related mortality case reports in the United States.

Approximately $42 billion is estimated to be the annual impact of medication errors (Naseralallah et al., 2023). As a baccalaureate-prepared nurse, I find this topic interesting and relevant as professional nurses play a crucial role in preventing medication errors. Medication administration is the primary responsibility of nurses; hence, nurses should be well-trained and prepared to avoid such adverse events and improve the quality of nursing practices. During my orientation in clinical settings, I have seen a similar incident where nurses’ negligence led to a severe medication error by administering the wrong drug (Antibiotic) to the wrong patient, resulting in an anaphylactic reaction in the patient.

This incident ultimately increased the patient’s length of stay due to active complications of anaphylaxis. Since this topic is professionally relevant to nursing practice, this annotated bibliography presents peer-reviewed articles on medication errors. This assessment will help find evidence-based and credible information to address the healthcare issue. 

Identification of Peer-reviewed Articles 

The databases used to identify peer-reviewed articles for the annotated bibliography are CINAHL, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. I used keywords like prevalence of medication errors, risk factors of medication errors, best practices to address medication errors, and technology to prevent medication errors. The criteria used to search for the articles is CRAAP, an acronym for currency, relevance, authority, accuracy, and purpose. CRAAP criteria help students and researchers find credible and relevant information from online sources, polishing their research skills (Esparrago-Kalidas, 2021). 

  • Currency (The article should be current and up-to-date).
  • Relevance (The information should link to the topic of research). 
  • Authority (The authors and the publishing journal should have enough credentials). 
  • Accuracy (The points presented in the article are accurate and precise to the topic). 
  • Purpose (The article’s purpose must be clear and match your research’sresearch’s objective). 

Assessing Credibility and Relevance of Resources 

Based on the criteria presented earlier, I have determined the credibility and relevance of the resources. The articles in the annotated bibliography are from four journals: the Journal of Patient Safety, Drug Safety, Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, and the European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. These journals publish peer-reviewed medical and healthcare articles, assisting researchers in identifying evidence-based, credible, and relevant information related to several healthcare topics. All the articles chosen are between 2019 and 2021, making them up-to-date with the information.

Since the keywords used to identify these sources are related to medication errors, the information identified from these articles is relevant to the research topic. These articles provide insights into the global presence of healthcare issues and the contributing factors, which will assist in finding organization-specific factors and challenges. Moreover, the articles present best practices and technological advancements that are helping to prevent the issue in the healthcare industry. These practices can also be instituted in our organization to improve the quality of care and preserve patient safety. 

Annotated Bibliography 

Alqenae, F. A., Steinke, D., & Keers, R. N. (2020). Prevalence and nature of medication errors and medication-related harm following discharge from hospital to community settings: A systematic review. Drug Safety43(6), 517–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-00918-3 

The purpose of this systematic review is to provide insights into the prevalence and nature of medication errors after patients are discharged from the hospitals and living in community settings. The article found that medication errors and adverse events are common following discharge, as indicated by 53% in adult patients and 66.3% in the pediatric population. The review found that the most common drugs that imply medication-related harm are antibiotics, analgesics, antidiabetics, and cardiovascular drugs. The article concludes that medication errors and medication-related adverse events are significant problems in patients after discharge. Thus, it recommends the planning of pre-discharge interventions to prevent these errors. The reason to include a particular article in this annotated bibliography is its relevance to the topic of research – medication errors. This article explains why addressing the challenge in the healthcare setting is essential. Still, preventing errors outside the hospital through effective discharge planning is vital. 

Hutton, K., Ding, Q., & Wellman, G. (2021). The effects of barcoding technology on medication errors: A systematic literature review. Journal of Patient Safety17(3), e192. https://doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000366 

The purpose of this article is to examine the effectiveness of the barcoding system in preventing and reducing medication errors in hospitals. It is a comprehensive review of existing literature that discusses the impact of barcoding technology on medication safety. Initially, the article presents the prevalence of medication errors. Then, it explains that the barcoding system helps prevent errors related to the five rights of medication administration. However, the article also mentioned the limitations of barcoding technology, such as technological glitches. The article suggested using other patient safety interventions with the barcoding system in such cases. The article concludes that healthcare organizations should opt for a barcoding system and other interventions to maintain patient safety, specifically regarding medication management. I have chosen this article for the annotated bibliography because it is a valuable tool that provides high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of technological integration for medication safety. This article is relevant to the topic of interest. It provides indispensable awareness about technological advancements so that our organization may improve the quality of healthcare services by implementing the barcoding system. 

Manias, E., Kusljic, S., & Wu, A. (2020). Interventions to reduce medication errors in adult medical and surgical settings: A systematic review. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety11, 204209862096830. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098620968309 

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of several interventions to reduce medication errors in medical and surgical settings. These interventions include a computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system, medication reconciliation, healthcare professionals’ education and training, and pharmacists’ involvement. A total of 34 studies were included in the review, representing various intervention types and settings. The article concluded that engaging pharmacists to review and reconcile medication using electronic systems will identify the discrepancies in the medication list. Such an identification can prevent patients from taking inactive medications. Moreover, the article also recommended training and educating medication prescribers prescriber and initiating CPOE systems for medication orders to prevent prescribing errors. The reason to include this article is that it provided relevant and credible evidence on various interventions that can be implemented to reduce medication errors. This will help the organization to execute a comprehensive medication safety plan according to the needs to prevent and reduce these adverse events.

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Thomas, B., Paudyal, V., MacLure, K., Pallivalapila, A., McLay, J., El Kassem, W., Al Hail, M., & Stewart, D. (2019). Medication errors in hospitals in the Middle East: A systematic review of prevalence, nature, severity, and contributory factors. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology75(9), 1269–1282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-019-02689-y 

This systematic review aims to provide broad insights into the presence, types, rigorousness, and associated risk factors for medication errors. This review examined 452 articles, and the key findings revealed that these errors were primarily attributed to mistakes and error-provoking conditions such as lack of knowledge, disruptions, communication barriers, and inadequate staffing levels. The review concludes that medication errors are a significant threat to patient safety; therefore, it is essential to identify the contributing factors (medication management failures, environmental factors, lack of staffing, lack of training, and inadequate communication) and initiate targeted interventions to address those factors and improve medication safety. Although these factors are explicitly identified in the Middle Eastern region, they are universal and can be found in hospitals worldwide. Thus, the reason for including this article in the bibliography is to understand the common risk factors, identify those and others in our organization, and address the challenges accordingly. 

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Key Learnings 

This research taught me that medication errors are a common healthcare issue, significantly impacting patient safety. The growing prevalence of medication errors advocates the need to address the issue. However, it is vital to identify the contributing factors within the organization that are leading to these problems. The identification of these factors will assist the organization in developing specific interventions targeting those factors. Additionally, technological advancements play a crucial role in preventing and reducing these errors, ultimately supporting patient safety. Thus, organizations should think and operate in that direction. These sources of information increased my knowledge about the types of medication errors and their growing prevalence, and they instilled insights into how healthcare advancements can improve the quality of care and patient safety. These sources also enhanced my understanding of the complexities involved in medication management and safety and the potential strategies for improvement in the future to prevent such adverse incidences. 


References

Alqenae, F. A., Steinke, D., & Keers, R. N. (2020). Prevalence and nature of medication errors and medication-related harm following discharge from hospital to community settings: A systematic review. Drug Safety43(6), 517–537. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-00918-3 

Esparrago-Kalidas, A. J. (2021). The effectiveness of CRAAP test in evaluating credibility of sources. International Journal of TESOL & Education1(2), 1–14. https://i-jte.org/index.php/journal/article/view/25 

Hutton, K., Ding, Q., & Wellman, G. (2021). The effects of barcoding technology on medication errors: A systematic literature review. Journal of Patient Safety17(3), e192. https://doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000366 

Manias, E., Kusljic, S., & Wu, A. (2020). Interventions to reduce medication errors in adult medical and surgical settings: A systematic review. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety11, 204209862096830. https://doi.org/10.1177/2042098620968309 

Naseralallah, L., Stewart, D., Price, M., & Paudyal, V. (2023). Prevalence, contributing factors, and interventions to reduce medication errors in outpatient and ambulatory settings: A systematic review. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacyhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-023-01626-5 

NHS FPX 4000 Assessment 2 Applying Research Skills

Thomas, B., Paudyal, V., MacLure, K., Pallivalapila, A., McLay, J., El Kassem, W., Al Hail, M., & Stewart, D. (2019). Medication errors in hospitals in the Middle East: A systematic review of prevalence, nature, severity and contributory factors. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology75(9), 1269–1282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-019-02689-y 

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